ŠAVŠ/TAČR Digital Czechia in a Digital Europe


These results are global in nature. Thus, it can be assumed that the data for the Czech Republic do not yet reach such high numbers. Such a trend from the point of view of the public interest is, however, alarming in itself as attacks on private entities also directly threaten the state interest. The cyber security of the state also depends, to a large extent, on the ability and resilience of the companies represented in it to defend against cyberattacks. For this reason, with regard to cyber security, cooperation between the state and private entities must be much more interlinked than, for example, in other economic areas or even in other security sectors. This is also based on the fact that in many cases national defense and internal security itself depend on the infrastructure and resources provided or owned by the private sector. 9 The primary task must be to create an effective platform for cooperation with domestic companies and companies, especially those that represent a strategic sector for the state – typically defense, finance/ banking, telecommunications, logistics, energy and healthcare/pharmaceuticals. The perpetrators themselves are usually divided into several categories. The Government Communication Headquarters (GCHQ) divides them into 1) cybercriminals – those who strive for financial enrichment by selling the information obtained, blackmailing or using ransomware; 2) industrial competition or foreign intelligence services aimed at obtaining critical (strategically important) information; 3) hackers – attacking networks out of personal interest; 4) hacktivists – politically or ideologically motivated groups; 5) employees – their own employees also become a significant danger, who can often misuse their passwords, knowledge or personal contacts. 10 However, such a generalized framework is only for conceptual purposes since in many cases different categories may overlap or be otherwise interlinked. Whatever the perpetrator of the cyberattack, the current trend remains that similar attacks are occurring more and more frequently, with an increasing share of society. The growing availability of tools/software that enable cyberattacks also plays an important role in this. Closely related to this is the continuing reduction in the technical complexity of using such tools effectively. While more than a decade ago, cyberattacks were the prerogative of a very small group of technically gifted individuals, today this activity has spread to more ordinary (but still technically capable) users of information and communication technologies (ICT). 11 In the future, it can be assumed that this trend will continue, and cybercrime will become a more widespread phenomenon. 9 Cyber Security Strategy [Estonia] 2014-2017, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication 2014, https://www.mkm.ee/sites/default/files/cyber_security_strategy_2014-2017_public_version.pdf. 10 Common cyberattacks: reducing the impact – Cyber Attacks White Paper, National Cyber Security Center GCHQ, 01/2016, see https://ncsc-content.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/common_cyber_attacks_ ncsc.pdf. 11 Carrapico Helena Farrand, Cyber Security Series: Comparing Best Practice Across Europe, Chatham House, 18/09/2019, see https://www.chathamhouse.org/event/cyber-security-series-comparing-best- practice-across-europe.

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