ŠAVŠ/TAČR Digital Czechia in a Digital Europe


number is likely to increase fivefold. 28 Cyber security is thus one of the key sectors that will require direct investment and support from the Czech Republic in the coming years. As mentioned above, the United Kingdom invested up to CZK 19.5 billion in this segment in 2011–2015 alone, of which up to 50% was earmarked for the UK Government Communication Headquarters (GCHQ) to detect and eliminate cybercriminal threats of the highest order (especially cyberattacks by foreign powers). 29 Estonia has allocated approximately CZK 410 million for its strategy between 2014 and 2017. 30 Other countries are planning significant staff expansions. For example, Denmark is in the process of increasing up to 50% of its cyber security staffing capacity. 31 Direct investment by the Czech Republic will thus be a necessary part of ensuring cyber security. With regard to the private sector, a very interesting finding, based on the results of the Radware Inc 2018 study and including over 600 samples, is that up to 80% of the companies surveyed are unable to quantify the financial damage caused by cyberattacks. 32 It can be assumed that the inability to quantify potential damage may to some extent be reflected in the lower willingness of the private sector to respond to potential cyber threats. Thus, the Czech Republic should not only increase awareness of potential threats, but in the case of strategically important companies, it should strive to quantify potential damages as accurately as possible. The more accurate the estimate of possible damage, the higher the chances of preparing for possible cyberattacks and their consequences. Finally, with regard to companies that are directly involved in cyber security, the Czech Republic should strive to create a system of tax relief and financial incentives in order to create an environment so that such companies can more easily establish and develop. At the same time, there should be projects in which such companies would provide government employees (especially those working in the ICT sectors) with professional training, internships or expert programs focused on cyber threats. Last but not least, the Czech Republic should provide financial support or other benefits to companies (especially those that can be described as strategically important) that decide to increase their cyber security, for example by purchasing higher-level antivirus software.

28 Resilience, deterrence and defence: building strong cyber security for the EU, European Commission (JOIN(2017) 450 final). 29 The UK Cyber Security Strategy Protecting and promoting the UK in a digital world. 30 Cyber Security Strategy [Estonia] 2014-2017, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication 2014. 31 Christoffersen Mogens, Cyber Security Series: Comparing Best Practice Across Europe, Chatham House, 18.09.2019, see https://www.chathamhouse.org/event/cyber-security-series-comparing-best-practice-across- europe. 32 Radware Report Highlights Rise in Ransom Hacks, Radware Inc.

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