ŠAVŠ/TAČR Digital Czechia in a Digital Europe
services, b) enable effective relationshipmanagementwithin individual components, and c) support the economic and social development of citizens, companies and civil society, at the local, national and international levels. APPROACHES TO THE REGULATION OF E-GOVERNMENT: TO CENTRALIZE OR DECENTRALIZE? In this section, we will try to describe the system of e-government regulation in selected countries of the European Union in order to identify whether a more centralized or decentralized approach to the solution is preferred and what are the main priorities in the field of e-government in selected countries of the European Union. In line with the ranking of the countries for the period 2018, the Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Sweden and Finland) are among the three most successful. (Though Norway is not a member of the European Union, a similar potential can be traced.) Even on these distinct winners’ podiums, it is not clear whether a centralized or a decentralized approach is to be preferred. Denmark follows a largely decentralized model, with the involvement of the Ministry of Finance, the Agency for Digitisation, the Ministry of Industry, Business, and Financial Affairs and the Ministry of Climate, Energy and Utilities. Given the number of ministries responsible, the Agency of Digitisation’s role a coordinator is crucial. In Finland, the Ministry of Finance (in the field of public sector ICT) and the Ministry of Transport and Communications cooperate; in Sweden, it is the sole preserve of the Ministry of Infrastructure. A similar system is set up in Norway, where the Ministry of Local Government and Modernization (Department of ICT Policies and Public Sector Reform), as well as the Public Administration Agency and e-Government, are in charge of e-Government. The decentralized approach is also evident in the following jurisdictions: • Luxembourg (Ministry for Digitalisation, Government IT Centre, Ministry of State, Ministry of the Economy, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Higher Education and Research), • Estonia (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, Government CIO Office, Estonian Association of Information Technology and Telecommunication, e-Estonia Council). In all other countries analyzed (the Netherlands, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Austria, Malta and Lithuania), a single ministry is in charge of e-Government. Overall, it is not possible to generalize a clear inclination in terms of ministerial portfolio, although the responsibility of the Ministries of Finance, Interior and Industry, or the government office itself, predominates.
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