CYIL 7 ȍ2016Ȏ THE CONCEPTUAL ROLE OF HABITUAL RESIDENCE resolution the concept of nationality gained a primacy which was then retained for a long time. Th e Institut de Droit International fixed the primary position of the general principle of nationality. 41 The Oxford resolution on status, capacity, and succession and other recommendations as well were addressed to legislators and jurists of various branches. This principle found a legislative reflection and was codified in the national law of various states in several continents. Mancini himself meant to recognize some general principles of choice of law, including the principle of nationality, by means of a codification treaty. His idea had a real substance. Italy, where Mancini was in the position of Minister of Foreign Affairs, took charge of the codification negotiations. The Italian government suggested commencing spadework. 42 However the reaction of European powers was not outright. Only Netherlands supported the plan to negotiate on a multilateral agreement. The Institute was not the only international non-governmental body in the field of codification of private international law. The Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations initiated the organisation of a diplomatic conference on the execution of foreign judgements motivated by their session in September 1883. The Italian government reacted positively and addressed many governments, but the efforts were to no avail. The same idea was taken over by Netherland’s government in 1874. Their codification efforts were supported by a group of states not earlier than 1893, when the first international conference was convened at Hague with the purpose of discussing various questions of family law and general principles on conflict of laws. 43 The first four Hague conferences took place in 1893, 1894, 1900 and 1904. The five conventions related to practical questions of family law were prepared very quickly during the conferences. The sessions raised a slight optimism rather than a legal fin de siècle . 44 The purpose of the conferences on private international law was, inter alia , to overcome divergences of views towards connecting factors. 45 The 41 Institut de Droit International, Session de Lausanne,1888, Conclusions concernant les principes communs au droit civil et au droit commercial (Rapporteur : M. Ludwig von Bar): «Conformément aux principes adoptés à Oxford, la capacité d‘une personne, en matière commerciale comme en matière civile, se détermine d‘après sa loi nationale.» 42 Mancini was Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1881. 43 DROZ, Georges A. L. A Comment on the Role of the Hague Conference on Private International Law. Law and Contemporary Problems , 1994, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 2. 44 Convention du 12 Juin 1902 pour régler les conflicts de lois en matière de mariage; Convention du 12 Juin 1902 pour régler les conflicts de lois et de juridictions en matière de divorce et de séparations de corps; Convention du 12 Juin 1902 pour régler la tutelle des mineurs; Convention du 17 juillet 1905 concernant les conflits de lois relatifs aux effets du mariage sur les droits et les devoirs des époux dans leurs rapports personnels et sur les biens des époux; Convention du 17 juillet 1905 concernant l‘interdiction et les mesures de protection analogues. 45 International Court of Justice, Case concerning the application of the Convention of 1902 Governing the Guardianship of Infants (Netherlands v. Sweden), Judgment of November 28 th , 1958, p. 16.