JAN ONDŘEJ – MAGDA UXOVÁ CYIL 7 ȍ2016Ȏ In the years 2004–2006 the organization used a new shorter name, Al- Qaeda, in v Iraq; the leadership of the organization was arrested after the American invasion into Iraq and was interned in the American prison camp Bucca, 4 where other radical supporters joined them. Prisoners established valuable contacts and underwent training, which helped them to fight for their objective. Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who acted as leader of Al- Qaeda in Iraq, managed to cause civil war; however, Americans managed to kill him in 2006. The leadership of the organization was overtaken by Abu Ayyub al-Masri, who interrupted cooperation with Al- Qaeda and created a new organization called the Islamic state in Iraq. 5 The organization developed and started to be known as the Islamic state in Iraq and the Levant 6 in 2013–2014. The idea of the creation of a new, purely Islamic entity on the territory of Iraq was discussed. After obtaining the bigger part of the province of Al Anbar, this became possible, and on 3 January 2014 the new state called Islamic state was proclaimed. The Islamic law sharia is used on the territory. Sharia law influences all aspects of daily life. It refers to politics, banking, trade, contracts, family or social affairs. Sharia is based on Sunna, which contain quotations of the prophet Mohamed and the Quran, where the rules given by Allah are contained. It is a complex set of rules given by God to all Muslims, which they have to observe to reach Heaven after their death – to know, how to live. It is important to note that sharia is not codified – there is no unified codex of laws. In principle, the Islamic law sharia applies only to Muslims. Individuals of other religions (e.g. Christians, Jews) who get into legal arguments with Muslims have to refer to norms of Islamic law. As to the litigation between two individuals of different religion, these are left for their own courts of justice and state administration. Although some countries of the Middle East apply sharia law, they use it only for some areas of human life. They continue to use systems of secular and religious courts. These courts decide in areas of social issues and family law. In these countries the only source of law is sharia; the religious police are active and rigorously check if all the rules of this “legal system” are observed. On the territory under the Islamic state control sharia is applied completely and totally influences the way of life in this formation. The interpretation of sharia law in cases of atheism or conversion of Muslims into another religion is that this is strictly forbidden and punished. Apostasy means the possibility of exceptional penalty and can lead to capital punishment. The crime of apostasy can be committed also by unconventional interpretation of Quran or other religious texts. telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/tony-blair/11953452/Tony-Blair-apologises-for-Iraq-War-mistakes-and- accepts-invasion-had-part-to-play-in-rise-of-Islamic-State.html. 4 Kde se zrodil Islámský stát? V iráckém táboře Američanům před očima. Novinky.cz [online]. Praha: Novinky, 2015 [cit. 2016-05-24]. Accessible at: http://www.novinky.cz/zahranicni/amerika/371041- -kde-se-zrodil-islamsky-stat-v-irackem-tabore-americanum-pred-ocima.html.