CYIL Vol. 7, 2016

CYIL 7 ȍ2016Ȏ ISLAMIC STATE, AN ACTOR THREATENING PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST is intensive. There is also evident support from the Russian federation; however at the cost of loss of lives of Russian soldiers. The fights cause the death of many civilian victims; according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), at least 54 civilians were killed within 24 hours in January 2016. 42 Provided the USA were seriously interested in defeating the Islamic state, they possess the means to do so, and the defeat of the Islamic state and the elimination of terrorism would be applauded by many US citizens. It would mean higher security for their nationals. Even though the latest terrorist attacks took place mainly in Europe (considering the Western world), it is just a question of time before they happen in the USA. The question arises as to why the USA are not concerned with defeating the Islamic state at the present moment. One of the reasons might be the fact that this rich organization purchases arms that are covertly delivered from the USA. 43 According to other sources, it is the extreme unpopularity of Bashar al-Assad in the USA which The states of the international community conduct actions with the aim of eliminating the Islamic state on the territory which this organization controls, that is in Iraq and Syria. On this territory several armed conflicts are in progress. Primarily there is the conflict between the Syrian government and the Islamic state on the Syrian territory. Then, there is the conflict between the Iraqi government and the Islamic state. Various insurgent groups are fighting against the official Syrian government with the aim of overthrowing the Syrian government. Some of these groups were officially recognized (see above). Some of these groups, for example the Al-Nusra Front, however, are considered terrorist organizations. Also Turkey operates against the Islamic state, but also against the Kurdish Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) operation on the Syrian territory. 44 Apart from these, other states operate in this area, namely Russia on the side of Syria and the USA and other western states that support Iraq but also operate in Syria. These conflicts and the resulting impacts on theMiddle East area should be resolved by the Security Council of the UN. The Security Council bears, according to Article 24 of the UnitedNations Charter, the primary responsibility for maintenance of international peace and security. However, with the exception of the anti-terrorist resolutions (see 42 Rusové v Sýrii bombardují civilisty a tvrdí, že je to boj proti Islámskému státu. Svobodné fórum [online]. Svobodné fórum, 2016 [cit. 2016-05-20]. Accessible at: bombarduji-civilisty-a-tvrdi-ze-je-to-boj-proti-islamskemu-statu/. 43 Izraelský expert: USA nechtějí porazit Islámský stát. Rusko v Sýrii řeší své zájmy. A přestaňme před- stírat, že Turecko je náš spojenec. Parlamentní [online]. 2015 [cit. 2016-05-20]. Accessible at: Rusko-v-Syrii-resi-sve-zajmy-A-prestanme-predstirat-ze-Turecko-je-nas-spojenec-410163. 44 STARSKI, Paulina. Right to Self-Defense, Attribution and the Non-State Autor- Birth of the “Unable or Unwilling” Standard? Zeitschrift fur auslandisches offentliches Recht und Volkerrecht , 2015, Vol. 75, p. 500. leads to silent rapprochement. 3.1 The right to self-defence


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